Palmanova is a fortified city with a population of about 5,400 people, located in the northeast of the country about 25 km south of Udine, was laid in the late 16th century, with the direct support of the government of the Venetian Republic. Palmanova was to become a model of the city-fortress.Later, the residents themselves tried to realize the utopian idea that symmetry really helps people to live and develop. The shape of the nine-cornered star was formed in such a way that any of the nine “corners” could get support and help from an adjacent “corner” in case of an attack. The city could be reached through one of the three gates. Inside the city consists of three “ring-levels”. The author of the project of the fortress city was the famous Italian architect Vincenzo Scamozzi.
October 7, 1593, the first stone of the new fortress was laid, named the “star city” due to its form of a nine-cornered star.
Palmanova was conceived mainly as a defensive structure to strengthen the borders and prevent the invasion of the Turks: the number of bastions and the length of the sides of the fortress were calculated taking into account the long-range guns of that time.
At the time of the Venetian rule, the fortress was supplied with two rings of fortifications with curtains, earthen ramparts, moats and ravelins, which protected three approaches to the city – from the side of Udine, Cividale and Aquileia.
In 1797, the Austrian army deceived into the fortress. But the Austrians did not have time to enjoy the victory, as the Frenchman captured the fortress. After the signing of the Campo-Formia Peace Treaty, Palmanova again moved to the Austrians, who held her for several years.
In 1805, the French entered the fortress, and during this period a third circle of fortifications appeared. In 1814 the city-star again returned to the Habsburgs.
During the Austrian rule (1815-1866) the Public Theater was built, which became the main distributor of Risorgimento ideas.
In 1848, the townspeople led by General Tsukki revolted against the Austrians. In 1866, Palmanova joined the Italian kingdom.
During the First World War, the fortress became the center of distribution and supply of the army. After the Battle of Caporetto, the city was set on fire by the retreating troops of the Italian army.
By decree of the President of the Italian Republic in 1960, Palmanova was proclaimed a National Monument.